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Elaborate on the technology and characteristics of making wires and cables

Elaborate on the technology and characteristics of making wires and cables

  • Time of Issue:2021-10-08

(Summary description) The production of wires and cables is completely different from the production methods of most electromechanical products. Electromechanical products usually adopt the assembly of other parts into parts, and the assembly of multiple parts into a single product, and the products are measured by the number of units or pieces. Wire and cable are based on length as the basic unit of measurement. All wires and cables start from the processing of conductors, and add insulation, shielding, cabling, and sheathing layer by layer to the periphery of the conductor to make wire and cable products. The more complex the product structure, the more layers of overlap. We will see various types of wires and cables in our daily lives. Today, let's talk about the process and characteristics of making wires and cables in detail...

Elaborate on the technology and characteristics of making wires and cables

(Summary description) The production of wires and cables is completely different from the production methods of most electromechanical products. Electromechanical products usually adopt the assembly of other parts into parts, and the assembly of multiple parts into a single product, and the products are measured by the number of units or pieces. Wire and cable are based on length as the basic unit of measurement. All wires and cables start from the processing of conductors, and add insulation, shielding, cabling, and sheathing layer by layer to the periphery of the conductor to make wire and cable products. The more complex the product structure, the more layers of overlap. We will see various types of wires and cables in our daily lives. Today, let's talk about the process and characteristics of making wires and cables in detail...

  • Time of Issue:2021-10-08
Information

 

  The production of wires and cables is completely different from the production methods of most electromechanical products. Electromechanical products usually adopt the assembly of other parts into parts, and the assembly of multiple parts into a single product, and the products are measured by the number of units or pieces. Wire and cable are based on length as the basic unit of measurement. All wires and cables start from the processing of conductors, and add insulation, shielding, cabling, and sheathing layer by layer to the periphery of the conductor to make wire and cable products. The more complex the product structure, the more layers of overlap. We will see various types of wires and cables in our daily lives. Today, let's talk about the process and characteristics of making wires and cables in detail.

 

  Process characteristics of wire and cable products:

  1. Large-length continuous stacking combined production method Large-length continuous stacking combined production method has a global and controllable impact on the production of wires and cables, which touches and affects:

  (1) Production process flow and equipment layout Various equipment in the production workshop must be reasonably discharged according to the process flow required by the product, so that the semi-finished products at each stage can be circulated in sequence. The equipment configuration should consider the different production efficiency and balance the production capacity. Some equipment may need to be equipped with two or more units in order to balance the production capacity of the production line. Then the reasonable combination of equipment and the layout of the production site need to be balanced and summarized according to the product and the output.

  (2) The production organization must be scientific and reasonable, thorough, accurate, strict and detailed, and the operator must meticulously implement the process requirements. Any problem in any link will affect the smoothness of the process and affect the quality and delivery of the product. goods. Especially for multi-core cables, if the length of a certain pair or basic unit is short, or there is a quality problem, the length of the entire cable will not work, and it will become invalid. On the contrary, if the length of a certain unit is too long, it is necessary to saw it to cause spoil.

  (3) The production method of quality management of large-length successive stacking combination will affect the quality of the entire cable if a little problem occurs in any link during the production process. The more quality defects occur in the inner layer and the termination of production is not discovered in time, the greater the loss will be. Because the production of wires and cables is different from assembled products, they can be disassembled, reassembled and replaced; quality problems in any part of the wire and cable or the process are almost irreparable and make up for this cable. The subsequent treatment is very negative, either cut short or reduce the treatment, or discard the entire cable. It cannot be disassembled and reinstalled. For the quality management of wires and cables, it is necessary to run through the entire production process. The quality management inspection department shall conduct round-trip inspections of the entire production process, self-inspection of operators, and mutual inspection of upper and lower procedures. This is an important guarantee and means to ensure product quality and improve the economic benefits of the enterprise.

 

  2. There are many types of production processes and large material flow. The production of wires and cables involves a wide range of processes, from smelting and pressure processing of non-ferrous metals, to chemical technologies such as plastics, rubber, and paint; textile technologies such as wrapping and weaving of fiber materials, To the wrapping of metal materials and the longitudinal wrapping of metal strips, the metal forming process of welding, and so on. The various materials used in the manufacture of wires and cables are not only diverse in categories, varieties, and specifications, but also in large quantities. Therefore, it is necessary to approve the amount of various materials, spare quantities, batch period and batch size. At the same time, the decomposition, recycling, reuse, and waste disposal of waste products are an important part of the process. We must do a good job of material quota management and pay attention to saving. In the production of wires and cables, from the import and export of raw materials and various auxiliary materials, the flow of semi-finished products from each process to the storage and delivery of products, the material flow is large, and it is necessary to rationally arrange and manage them dynamically.

 

  3. Dedicated equipment Multi-wire and cable production uses special production equipment with the characteristics of the industry to meet the structure and performance requirements of cable products, and to meet the requirements of large-length connection and high-speed production as much as possible, and then form a dedicated cable production Equipment series. Such as extruder series, wire drawing machine series, stranding machine series, wrapping machine series, etc. The production process of wire and cable is closely related to the development of special equipment and promotes each other. New process requirements promote the production and development of new special equipment; conversely, the development of new special equipment, and progress has promoted the promotion and application of new processes. Such as wire drawing, annealing, extrusion tandem lines; physical foaming production lines and other special equipment, promote the development and progress of the wire and cable manufacturing process, and improve the product quality and production efficiency of the cable.

 

  The basic process flow of plastic wire and cable production

  1. Commonly used copper and aluminum rods for drawing wires and cables of copper and aluminum monofilament, at room temperature, use a wire drawing machine to pass through one or several die holes of the drawing die to reduce the cross section, increase the length, and improve the strength. Wire drawing is a process of various wire and cable companies, and the main process parameter of wire drawing is die-matching technology.

 

  2. Monofilament annealed copper and aluminum monofilaments are heated to a certain temperature and recrystallized to improve the resistance of the monofilament and reduce the strength of the monofilament to meet the requirements of wires and cables for conductive cores. The key to the annealing process is to prevent the oxidation of the copper wire.

 

  3. Twisting of conductors In order to improve the flexibility of wires and cables and facilitate laying and installation, the conductive cores are made of stranded multiple monofilaments. From the stranding method of the conductive core, it can be divided into regular stranding and irregular stranding. Irregular stranding is divided into bundle stranding, concentric twisting, special stranding and so on. In order to reduce the occupied area of ​​the wire and reduce the geometric size of the cable, a compaction method is used together with the stranded conductors, so that the general circular shape is changed into a semicircle, a sector shape, a tile shape and a compact circular shape. This type of conductor should be used on power cables.

 

  4. Insulation and extrusion of plastic wires and cables should use extruded solid insulation layer, and the technical requirements for plastic insulation extrusion:

  4.1. Eccentricity: The deviation value of the extruded insulation thickness is an important sign that reflects the level of the extrusion process. Most of the product structure dimensions and deviation values ​​are clearly specified in the standard.

  4.2 Lubricity: The surface of the extruded insulating layer must be lubricated, and there must be no poor quality problems such as surface roughness, burnt, and impurities.

  4.3. Density: The cross-section of the extruded insulation layer should be dense and strong, and no pinholes visible to the naked eye are allowed to prevent the existence of bubbles.

 

  5. Cable formation For a multi-core cable, in order to ensure the degree of forming and reduce the shape of the cable, it is generally necessary to twist it into a circle. The stranding mechanism is similar to that of conductor stranding. Because the stranding pitch diameter is larger, most of the twist-free methods are used. Technical requirements for cable formation: First, to prevent twisting of the cable caused by the overturning of the special-shaped insulated core; second, to prevent the insulation layer from being scratched. Most of the cables are completed with the completion of the other two processes: one is filling, to ensure the smoothness and stability of the cable after the cable is formed; the other is to bind the cable to ensure that the cable core is not loose.

 

  6. Inner sheath In order to protect the insulated core from being damaged by the armor, the insulation layer needs to be properly maintained. The inner sheath is divided into: extruded inner sheath (isolation sleeve) and wrapped inner sheath (cushion layer) ). The wrapping cushion layer replaces the lashing tape and the cable forming process is carried out simultaneously.

 

  7. The armor is laid in the underground cable, which may bear a certain positive pressure effect during work, and the inner steel tape armor structure can be selected. Cable laying in occasions with both positive pressure effect and tensile effect (such as in water, vertical shafts or soil with a large drop), the structure type with inner steel wire armor should be selected.

 

  8. Outer sheath The outer sheath is a structural part that maintains the insulation layer of wires and cables to prevent environmental factors from corroding. The main effect of the outer sheath is to improve the mechanical strength of the wire and cable, prevent chemical corrosion, moisture, waterproof, and prevent the cable from burning. According to the different requirements of the cable, the plastic sheath is directly extruded by the extruder.

 

  The above is the process technology and characteristics of making wires and cables for everyone. I hope it will be helpful to everyone in understanding the knowledge of wires and cables.

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